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- Hell’s Best Kept Secret
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The biblical languages have several words for alcoholic beverages,   and though prohibitionists and some abstentionists dissent,     there is a broad consensus that the words did ordinarily refer to intoxicating drinks. The commonness and centrality of wine in daily life in biblical times is apparent from its many positive and negative metaphorical uses throughout the Bible.
The Bible also speaks of wine in general terms as a bringer and concomitant of joy, particularly in the context of nourishment and feasting. Kings and priests in the Old Testament were forbidden to partake of wine at various times. Paul further instructs Christians regarding their duty toward immature Christians: "It is better not to eat meat or drink wine or to do anything else that will cause your brother to fall. Virtually all Christian traditions hold that the Bible condemns ordinary drunkenness in many passages,  and Easton's Bible Dictionary says, "The sin of drunkenness Paul later chides the Corinthians for becoming drunk on wine served at their attempted celebrations of the Eucharist.
Both the climate and land of Palestine , where most of the Bible takes place, were well-suited to growing grapes,  and the wine that the vineyards produced was a valued commodity in ancient times, both for local consumption and for its value in trade. Jews were a wine-drinking culture well before the foundation of Rome. Vintage wines were found in the tomb of King Scorpion in Hierakonpolis. Archaeological evidence suggests that Semitic predecessors were thought to be responsible for the vintages that were found in the tomb.
In Hebrew, grape juice need not ferment before it is called wine: "When the grapes have been crushed and the wine [yayin] begins to flow, even though it has not descended into the cistern and is still in the wine press The harvest time brought much joy and play,  as "[m]en, women and children took to the vineyard, often accompanied by the sound of music and song, from late August to September to bring in the grapes.
Most of them, however, were put into the wine press where the men and boys trampled them, often to music. The fermentation process started within six to twelve hours after pressing, and the must was usually left in the collection vat for a few days to allow the initial, "tumultuous" stage of fermentation to pass. The wine makers soon transferred it either into large earthenware jars, which were then sealed, or, if the wine were to be transported elsewhere, into wineskins that is, partially tanned goat -skins, sewn up where the legs and tail had protruded but leaving the opening at the neck.
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Spices and scents were often added to wine in order to hide "defects" that arose from storage that was often not sufficient to prevent all spoiling. The Feast of Booths was a prescribed holiday that immediately followed the harvest and pressing of the grapes. It is disputed whether the regular use of wine in the celebration of the Eucharist and in daily life were the virtually universal and undisputed practice in Christianity for over 1, years. The Hebraic opinion of wine in the time before Christ was decidedly positive: wine is part of the world God created and is thus "necessarily inherently good,"  though excessive use is soundly condemned.
The Jews emphasized joy in the goodness of creation rather than the virtue of temperance , which the Greek philosophers advocated.
Lev As the Jews returned from the Babylonian exile starting in BC and the events of the Old Testament drew to a close, wine was "a common beverage for all classes and ages, including the very young; an important source of nourishment; a prominent part in the festivities of the people; a widely appreciated medicine; an essential provision for any fortress; and an important commodity," and it served as "a necessary element in the life of the Hebrews.
Although some abstentionists argue that wine in the Bible was almost always cut with water greatly decreasing its potency for inebriation,  there is general agreement that, while Old Testament wine was sometimes mixed with various spices to enhance its flavor and stimulating properties, it was not usually diluted with water,   and wine mixed with water is used as an Old Testament metaphor for corruption. Under the rule of Rome , which had conquered Palestine under Pompey see Iudaea Province , the average adult male who was a citizen drank an estimated liter about a quarter of a gallon, or a modern-day bottle and a third - about 35 oz.
The Apostolic Fathers make very little reference to wine. Clement of Alexandria died c. Even those who are "moored by reason and time" such that they aren't as much tempted by drunkenness after a day's work , he still encouraged to mix "as much water as possible" in with the wine to inhibit inebriation.
For at all hours, let them keep their "reason unwavering, their memory active, and their body unmoved and unshaken by wine. Some early Christian leaders focused on the strength and attributes of wines. They taught that two types of wine should be distinguished: wine causing joyousness and that causing gluttony intoxicating and non-intoxicating. The hermit John of Egypt died said: " Condemnation of drunkenness had increased by the late 4th-century.
Church rules against drinking entertainments are found in the Council of Laodicea : .
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However, Basil the Great died repudiated the views of some dualistic heretics who abhorred marriage, rejected wine, and called God's creation "polluted"  and who substituted water for wine in the Eucharist. A minority of Christians abstained totally from alcoholic beverages.
Monica of Hippo died eagerly kept the strict rule of total abstinence, which her bishop Ambrose required. She had never let herself drink much at all, not even "more than one little cup of wine, diluted according to her own temperate palate, which, out of courtesy, she would taste.
He cited Paul's instructions to them about alcohol in 1 Timothy and , and commented: "We note how much is required of us. The minister of the Lord should abstain from wine, so that he may be upheld by the good witness not only of the faithful but also by those who are without. He will tempt you in vain, if wine tempts you not. John Chrysostom died said: "they who do not drink take no thought of the drunken.
Hell’s Best Kept Secret
When he would exhort the Deacons to avoid excess in wine, he does not say, 'Be not drunken,' but 'not' even 'given to much wine. He emphasized the goodness of God's creation and adjured: "Let there be no drunkenness; for wine is the work of God, but drunkenness is the work of the devil.
Wine makes not drunkenness; but intemperance produces it. Do not accuse that which is the workmanship of God, but accuse the madness of a fellow mortal. The virtue of temperance passed from Greek philosophy into Christian ethics and became one of the four cardinal virtues under St. Ambrose  and St. The decline of the Roman Empire brought with it a significant drop in the production and consumption of wine in western and central Europe , but the Eastern and Western Church particularly the Byzantines preserved the practices of viticulture and winemaking.
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The medieval monks , renowned as the finest creators of beer and wine ,  were allotted about five liters of beer per day, and were allowed to drink beer but not wine during fasts. Bread and water that made up ale's ingredients was considered to not be a sin like that of wine. Brewing in monasteries increased and a number of modern breweries can trace their origins back to medieval monasteries. Thus he offers the concession of a quarter liter or perhaps, a half liter  of wine per day as sufficient for nourishment, with allowance for more in special circumstances  and for none as a punishment for repeated tardiness.
Thomas Aquinas died , a Dominican friar and the "Doctor Angelicus" of the Catholic Church, says that moderation in wine is sufficient for salvation but that for certain persons perfection requires abstinence, and this was dependent upon their circumstance. So freshly pressed must is indeed usable preferably after filtering any impurities. Drinking among monks was not universal, however, and in Bernardo Tolomei founded the Olivetan Order , initially following a much more ascetic Rule than Benedict's.
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The Olivetans uprooted all their vineyards, destroyed their wine-presses, and were "fanatical total abstainers," but the rule was soon relaxed. Because the Catholic Church requires properly fermented wine in the Eucharist  —with a modern exception for alcoholic or allergic priests  —wherever Catholicism spread, the missionaries also brought grapevines so they could make wine and celebrate the Mass. Adrian , patron saint of beer; St.
Amand , patron saint of brewers , barkeepers , and wine merchants ; St. Martin , the so-called patron saint of wine; St. Vincent , patron saint of vintners.
5 Ways God Keeps You Safe in a Dangerous World
Wine has a place in the divine services of the Orthodox Church , not only in the celebration of the Divine Liturgy Eucharist , but also at the artoklassia blessing of bread, wine, wheat and oil during the All Night Vigil and in the "common cup" of wine which is shared by the bride and groom during an Orthodox wedding service. A small amount of warm wine zapivka is taken by the faithful together with a piece of antidoron after receiving Holy Communion. In the Serbian Orthodox Church wine is used in the celebration of a service known as the Slava on feast days.
The fasting rules of the Orthodox Church forbid the consumption of wine and by extension, all alcoholic beverages on most fast days throughout the year. The Orthodox celebrate St. Tryphon as the patron saint of vines and vineyard workers. Zwingli reformed Zurich in many ways; in he reduced the closing time of taverns to 9 P. The monks under the Papacy refused to abstain from drinking: this astonished Calvin.
He said they merely abstained from certain foods instead.
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He contrasted them against the dignified Nazarites and the priests who were forbidden the use of wine in the Temple. The Lutheran Formula of Concord  and the Reformed Christian confessions of faith     also make explicit mention of and assume the use of wine, as does the Baptist Confession of Faith  and the Methodist Articles of Religion Lender summarizes the "colonists had assimilated alcohol use, based on Old World patterns, into their community lifestyles" and that "[l]ocal brewing began almost as soon as the colonists were safely ashore.
Although Methodist founder John Wesley warned: "You see the wine when it sparkles in the cup, and are going to drink of it. I tell you there is poison in it! In an early letter to Susanna, he simply dismissed those who thought she was unusual and too restrictive to have but one glass of wine. He rejected their claims of wholesomeness for this poisonous herb.
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Early advocacy for abstentionism in Methodism arose in America. At the Methodist Episcopal Church Conference in Baltimore , the churchmen opposed distilled liquors and determined to "disown those who would not renounce the practice" of producing it. Despite pressure from interested parties to relax rules of all kinds, the American Methodists afterwards reverted to Wesley's—namely, to avoid "[d]runkenness, buying or selling spirituous [i. Bishops in America Thomas Coke and Francis Asbury commented that frequent fasting and abstinence are "highly necessary for the divine life.